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زبان شناسی همگانی دکتر داود مدنی و کامران درخشان - آموزش زبان شناسی1

زبان شناسی همگانی دکتر داود مدنی و کامران درخشان

syntax


Grammar

q    Mental representation of a speaker’  linguistical  competence.

q   What a speaker knows about the language, including its phonology, morphology, syntax, semantics and lexicon.

syntax

ü   Language of origin – Greece

ü   σύν syn, "together", and τάξις táxis, "an ordering“

ü   Arrangement

ü   The rules of sentence formation

ü   The component of the mental grammar that represents speaker’s knowledge of the structure of phrases and sentences

ü   Refers directly to the rules and principles that govern the sentence structure of any individual language

q  Those that violate the syntactic rules are therefore …

ü        Ill-formed

ü      Ungrammatical

Be Cautious About …

v   Every sentence is a sequence of words

v   But not every sequence of words is a sentence

v   Sequence is made up of meaningful words

Theory of Syntax

v        An attempt to describe the rules that govern the order of words at the deep-structure level and also to account for how deep-structure syntax is changed to create different surface-structure sentences.

           Chomsky’s theory of Generative Grammar:

ü  Sentences have both a surface and a deep structure.

               The chicken was too hot to eat.

ü   Some sentences look different on the surface but are the same at a deep level.

                The teacher read the book.

                 The book was read by the teacher.

                                

Irregular Syntax

Writers place words in varying order to create emphasis or explore further meaning in their words.

  Syntax from the Thomas Hardy’s poem:

  (The man he killed )

“ Yes: quaint and curious war is!”

Describing the Syntax of English

Linear Order

Ø  Sequence of words

Morphological Word Categories

q  Content words ( noun, verb, adjectives, adverbs )

q  Function words ( determiners, pronouns )

Sentence Constituents

v  Function of parts of sentences ( subject, predicate )

v  Dependency among parts of sentences ( subject/ verb agreement )

Simple Sentence Construction

At the most basic level, sentences must include a subject  and a verb and may have an object.

Ø  A subject is the thing or person being described .

Ø  A verb expresses an action.

Sentences may also contain an object, which is the thing or person affected by the action described in the verb.

Phrase

A group of words missing either the subject, predicate, or both.

The wicked queen ( missing predicate )

Fighting the dragon ( missing subject)

Under the bridge ( missing both )

Clause

A group of words with a subject and a predicate .

a syntactic structure larger than a phrase. It has two main constituents: a noun phrase that functions as the subject, and a verb phrase that functions as the predicate.

q  Independent Clauses

q  Subordinate ( Dependent ) Clauses

Subordinate ( Dependent ) Clause

q  A clause that does not make sense on its own.

q  It needs to be attached to an independent clause.

After it stopped raining…

Unless Jesse stops snoring…

Until the team arrives…

Compound Sentences

Two independent clauses combined together with a coordinating conjunction or a semi-colon (;).

Marty brought the sandwiches, and Carmen brought the drinks.

Marty brought the sandwiches; Carmen brought the drinks.

Coordinating Conjunctions

Used to bring independent clause together :

FANBOYS: For, And, Nor, But, Or, Yet, So

Cleft Sentence

A complex sentence (one having a main clause and a dependent clause) that has a meaning that could be expressed by a simple sentence. Clefts typically put a particular constituent into focus. This focusing is often accompanied by a special intonation.

In English, a cleft sentence can be constructed as follows:

it + conjugated form of to be + X + subordinate clause

where it is a cleft pronoun and X is usually a noun phrase (although it can also be a prepositional phrase, and in some cases an adjectival or adverbial phrase). The focus is on X, or else on the subordinate clause or some element of it.

 For example:

          It's Joey (whom) we're looking for.

          It's money that I love.

          It was from John that she heard the news.

          It was meeting Jim that really started me off on this new line of work.

A constituent has these characteristics:

q    It behaves distributinally.

   For example, a noun phrase can appear in subject or object position.

   The students are in class

     (NP subject)

q      A constituent can be coordinated with another similar structure.

   For example, two noun phrases can be joined by the conjunction AND.

    I live here and my brother lives next door

q       It can be replaced by a proform.

    Martha said that she will cook dinner, and so  she will

    I like this car because it is fast

q       It can be omitted under appropriate discourse conditions.

        A constituent can be omitted to avoid repetition.

        Who took the money?

         Bob did (took the money)

Sentence Structure

       The TREE DIAGRAM

      Root (entire sentence)

      Leaves (individual words)

      Hierarchical structure (groupings)

      Constituent structures

Phrase Structure Rule

1. S à NP VP

                                the boy found the ball

2. NP à (Det) (Adj) N (PP)

                                the beautiful girl on the piano

4. NP à Pro

                                I, You, We

5. VP à V (NP) (PP) (Adv)

                                blew the boat into the water suddenly

6. PP à P NP

                                of the people




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