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زبان شناسی همگانی دکتر داود مدنی و کامران درخشان - آموزش زبان شناسی 2

زبان شناسی همگانی دکتر داود مدنی و کامران درخشان

Syntax

Instructor: Dr. Masoomeh Estaji

Linguistics

Syntax: the study of a set of constitutive rules of sentence formation.

Our general approach to syntax is based on Chomsky's influential work.

A speaker's linguistic knowledge can be characterized as a grammar consisting of a finite set of rules and principles that form the basis for the speaker's ability to produce and comprehend the unlimited number of phrases and sentences of the language. The rules and principles of the grammar also serve to capture regularities in the language.

Structure:  the network of relations among different units of a sentence.

Ambiguity:                                                                                                                            

Ø  Lexical Ambiguity: it caused by a lexical item(word)

            I went to the bank.

           I got a mouse today.                                                                                                                

Ø  Functional Ambiguity: it caused by two functions of a constituent.

     John is too far away to see. (Subject/ Direct object)

Ø  Structural Ambiguity: it caused by two structure of a constituent. The words can be grouped together in more than one way (one string of words may have more than one well-formed set of groupings).

     The boy saw a man with a telescope.

     The mother of the boy and the girl will arrive soon.

Syntactic knowledge:

ü  Word order                                      

ü  Word category                                     

ü  Syntactic functions                                      

ü  Syntactic features

In English, subjects of sentences have a number of properties:

a.       The subject of declarative sentence generally precedes the auxiliary and main verb in linear order.

b.      It forms the constituent around which an auxiliary is fronted in forming a question.

c.        It is the constituent with which a pronoun in a tag agrees in terms of person, number, and gender.

Most English pronouns are marked according to their function as subjects or objects.

 Pronouns in English assume two different forms to reflect their subject or no subject function:

a.       Subject pronouns: I, we, he, she, they; called nominative (subjective) case pronouns.

b.      Non-subject pronouns: me, us, him, her, them; are sometimes called accusative (objective) case pronouns. Non-subject pronouns cannot be used in subject position.

Therefore, the form of the pronoun may serve as a clue to the role, subject or object, which the pronoun plays in the sentence.

 

Constituent structure and Tree Diagrams/phrase marker:

a.       The linear order of words in a sentence

b.       The categorization of words into parts of speech

c.        The grouping of words into structural constituents of the sentence

The syntactic constituent structure of phrases and sentences can also be represented in terms of 'box diagrams' of the sort.

NOUN PHRASE

Article

Noun

Prepositional Phrase

 

 

The        people

Preposition

Noun Phrase

 

In

Article

Noun

the

room

 

Constituent structure Tests: Using Rules, Clefts, and Conjunction

 Constituent structure tests have traditionally involved stating a grammatical rule of the language and then formulating the phrase marker (tree).

 Cleft sentence: the following general form: it {is/was} X that Y

We can test the validity of the tree by inserting those two phrases into position X of appropriate cleft sentences:

a.        It is the desk that the people will move into the hall.

b.        It is into the hall that the people will move the desk.

Only single constituents of the same type can be conjoined with and. It concludes conjoined noun phrases, conjoined verb phrases, and conjoined prepositional phrases.

Grammatical Relations:

The same structural constituent in a sentence can have distinct relational functions. (NP can functions as the subject or the object of the sentence)

We have isolated the following structural properties and grammatical relations, and we have shown how these can be represented in, or defined on, tree diagrams:

Structural properties

a.        The linear order of elements

b.        The labeling of elements into lexical categories

c.        The grouping of elements into structural constituents (phrases)

Grammatical relations

a.        Subject

b.        Object

Tree Diagrams and Structural Ambiguity:

Whereas an unambiguous sentence is associated with just one basic phrase marker, a structurally ambiguous sentence is associated with more than one basic phrase marker.

A system of representation using phrase marker allows us to account for structurally ambiguous sentences by assigning more than one phrase marker to each ambiguous sentence.   

Ø  extraposition: modifying clauses can be shifted to the end of the sentence. Modifying clause serves to supply additional information about the head noun (sentences whose subject contain a modifier)

Accounting for discontinuous dependencies:

Relating phrase markers to one another is a fundamental insight of the theory of transformational grammar.

A transformational rule is an operation on a tree structure that converts an input tree structure (base structure) into an output structure (derived structure)

The output structure is called the surface structure of sentence.

Interaction between Extraposition and Particle Movement:

An input structure can derive another (surface) structure.

This sentence has two discontinuous dependencies, which actually 'cross' each other. In order to account for discontinuous dependencies, we needed to postulate not just structural properties of sentences but structural relations between phrase markers as well.

    Sentence structure involves both structural and relational aspects:

    -specification of the linear order of words

    -classification of words into parts of speech

    -grouping of words into structural constituents

    -assignment of grammatical relations to certain noun phrases in a sentence    

 

·          Phrase structure grammar:

Basic phrase markers are generated by phrase structure rules (PS rules) of the following sort:

a.        S               NP         Aux         VP

b.        NP            (Art)      N             (PP)

c.        VP             V           (NP)

d.        PP             P            NP

 

NP must consist at least of an N, which form the head of the NP; a VP must consist at least of a V, which forms the head of the VP; and PP must contain a P, which form the head of the PP.

Lexicon:  a list of words of a language. In the lexicon, words are listed with their parts of speech.

·         Recursion:

There is no limit to the number of times rules can apply.

·         Transformational grammar:

A single phrase marker alone cannot account for a discontinuous dependency.

                                              Particle movement transformation

SPECIAL TOPICS:

Other constructions that involve non-trivial dependencies:

·         Wh-Questions:

-There are structural situations that prohibit the questioning of a constituent.

e.g. when who has been fronted, we cannot place a noun phrase after the verb.(*Who john marry someone?)

-A constituent of an embedded clause can also be questioned.

e.g. Who did Martha say [Mary believed[…will marry John]]?

·          Passive:

It shows how to represent the relationship of subject to the verb in a passive sentence.

·          Raising:

Seems is the example of ''raising'' verbs. The term raising comes from the transformational approach involving ''raising'' Bill from the subject position in the embedded clause to the subject position of the entire sentence:         (It seems Bill like fish    /    Bill seems…to like fish)

·          Control Verbs:

Consider these two sentences:

a.        John promised Mary to leave.

b.        John persuaded Mary to leave.

       In (a) John is leaving, whereas in (b) Mary is the one leaving. The interpretation of the subject of the infinitival is the role     of main verb.

·         Sentence Structure and Anaphora:

Anaphora is a word or a phrase that refers back to another word or phrase used in a text.

Syntactic structures also contribute to anaphora phenomena. Example:

a.        Nicholas left after he found the tricycle.

b.        He left after Nicholas found the tricycle.

c.        After he found the tricycle, Nicholas left.

Nicholas and he are referring to the same person in (a) and (c). One difference between (a) and (b) is the order of the two noun phrases. And one difference between (b) and (c) is he appears higher in the tree than Nicholas in (b).

More data confirm the importance of c-command in constraining the interpretation of pronouns. Chomsky 1981: proposed the structural contribution in terms of the c-command relations between pairs of nodes.

(D) Evolution of Phrase Structure and Transformational Rules:

In ''Remarks on Nominalization,'' Chomsky (1970) proposed an alternative to the kinds of phrase structure (PS) rules.

Phrasal categories all have heads that belong to the same category as the phrasal category. But a rule such as VP      N   PP, in which the head of VP would not be V, but N. one proposal for such a constraint, involves the use of variables. The categorical content is achieved after words are inserted under the variable nodes, with their category affiliation replacing the variables (X-bar theory). In the Minimalist Program, Chomsky (1995) sets out to entirely eliminate both PS and transformational rules.

 

 

 

 

 




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با نام و یاد خداوند متعال تارنمای زبان شناسی دکتر مدنی در جهت رشد و گسترش رشته زبان شناسی در اردیبهشت 1392 راه اندازی شد.
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دکتر داود مدنی - کامران درخشان


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